Current Zoology(formerly Acta Zoologica Sinica),   Apr. 2012, 58(2): 342 - 352
Title: Social cliques in male northern muriquis Brachyteles hypoxanthus
Authors: Marcos TOKUDA, Jean P. BOUBLI, Patrícia IZAR, Karen B. STRIER
 D e p a r t m e n t   o f   E x p e r i m e n t a l   P s y c h o l o g y ,   U n i v e r s i t y   o f   S & a t i l d e ; o   P a u l o ,   B r a z i l 

Analyses of spatial relationships and social interactions provide insights into the social structure of animal societies and the ways in which social preferences among and between dyads affect higher order social relationships. In this paper we describe the patterns of spatial associations and social interactions among adult male northern muriquis in order to evaluate the dynamics of their social networks above the dyadic levels. Systematic observations were made on the 17 adult males present in a multi-male/multi-female group from April 2004 through February 2005, and in July 2005. Analyses of their spatial relationships identified two distinct male cliques; some adult males (called “N” males) were more connected to the females and immatures than other adult males (“MU” males), which were more connected to one another. Affiliative interactions were significantly higher among dyads belonging to the same clique than to different cliques. Although frequencies of dyadic agonistic interactions were similarly low among individuals within and between cliques, MU males appeared to be subordinate to N males. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in the copulation rates estimated for MU males and N males. Mutual benefits of cooperation between MU and N cliques in intergroup encounters might explain their ongoing associations in the same mixed-sex group [Current Zoology 58 (2): 342-352, 2012].

Keywords: Brachyteles hypoxanthus, Male northern muriquis, Social relationship, Social clique, Social network analysis

*Correspondence should be addressed to Marcos TOKUDA (

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